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A simple method for equine kinematic gait event detection


  • Dani Holt
  • Lindsay St George
  • Hilary M. Clayton
  • Sarah Jane Hobbs

This study was designed to develop a method of objectively determining gait events on a compliant surface.


Previous studies have validated methods for determining kinematic gait events using threshold-based techniques. However, a simple method that can be successfully applied to walk, trot and canter is yet to be identified.


To develop a simple kinematic method to identify the timing of hoof contact (hoof-on), peak vertical force and lift off (hoof-off), which can be applied in walk, trot and canter.


In vivo method authentication study. Methods: Horses (n = 3) were ridden in walk, trot and canter down a runway on which four force plates were arranged linearly. Three-dimensional forces were recorded at a sampling rate of 960 Hz and were synchronised with a 10-camera motion analysis system sampling at 120 Hz. Events identified from vertical ground reaction force (GRFz) data were hoof-on (GRFz>50N), peak vertical force (GRFzpeak ) and hoof-off (GRFz<50N). Kinematic identification of hoof-on and hoof-off events was based on sagittal planar angles of the fore- and hindlimbs. Peak metacarpophalangeal (MCP)/metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint extension was used to assess the time of GRFzpeak . The accuracy (mean) and precision (s.d.) of time differences between kinetic and kinematic events were calculated for fore- and hindlimbs at each gait.


Hoof-off was determined with better accuracy (range: -3.94 to 8.33 ms) and precision (range: 5.43-11.39 ms) than hoof-on across all gaits. Peak MCP angle (range: 5.83-19.65 ms) was a more precise representation of GRFzpeak than peak MTP angle (range: 11.49-67.75 ms). Main limitations: The sample size was small and therefore further validation is required. The proposed method was tested on a single surface.


This study proposes a simple kinematic method of detecting hoof-on, hoof-off and GRFzpeak at walk, trot and canter. Further work should focus on validating the methodology in a larger number of horses and should extend the method for use on surfaces with varying levels of compliance.